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MySQL Commands

  • $link = mysql_connect("host",:"username", "password");   //$link= FALSE on error, Link Id otherwise
  • $db = mysql_db_select("database", [$link]);         //$db = FALSE on error
  • $rs = mysql_query("query", [$link]);            //Is used for querying like select
  • $rs = mysql_exec("query", [$link]);            //Is used for executing commands like inserting,                           //updating, deleting
  • $row = mysql_fetch_array($rs);            //Resource Id. Fetch as an index array
  • $row = mysql_fetch_assoc($rs);            //Resource Id. Fetch as an associative array
  • mysql_close($link);                  //Close link
  • mysql_insert_id($rs);               //Last insertion Id
  • mysql_error([$link])                  //Last error
  • $output = mysql_real_escape_string("unescaped_string", [$link])

                       //This provides a security feature which prevents                           //security vulnerabilities by escaping characters like                        //quotes

Create New Links WIth MySQL

To open a new link we need to make newlink as true. New link are created even if identical calls are made In SQL safe mode this parameter is ignored.

  • $link = mysql_connect("host",:"username", "password", newlink);

mysqli = MySQL Improved

PHP Data Objects are

  • used to connect with a large variety of RDBMS
  • secure. This is implemented by Prepare command
  • atomic. It uses beginTransaction, Commit and rollBack for those RDBMS that support transactions



$dsn = ’mysql:host=localhost;dbname=library’;         //Dsn Data source name formatted according to the                        //driver used

$dbh = new PDO($dsn, ’dbuser’, ’dbpass’);         //Dbh Database handler



                       //By default PDO::ERRMODE_SILENT. So no                           //exception raised

$dbh->beginTransaction();               //Begins transaction

$affected = $dbh->exec("sql")               //For INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE and return                           //affected rows


$dbh->commit();                     //Commits transaction

$dbh->rollBack();                  //RollBack transaction

$results = $dbh->query($sql);               //Returns a PDOStatement object

$results->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_OBJ);         //PDO::FETCH_BOTH, PDO::FETCH_ARRAY

foreach ($results as $row)



$sql= "SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = :param1";      //Also ? instead of : for bound parameters

$stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql);               //No need of quoting here using PDO:quote()

$stmt->bindParam(’:param1’, $param1);



$results = $stmt->fetchAll();

foreach ($results as $row)




catch (PDOException $e)


echo ’Failed: ’ . $e->getMessage();


Persistent connections

Persistent connections do not close on the execution of script. Also when a new connection is requested it looks for an open identical connection (Same username, password and host) and if so uses it.

  • mysql_pconnect();
  • mysqli_connect() with p: prefix on host
  • While creating PDO object use PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT as a driver option Driver option is the fourth and final parameter and is an array of options.

IT Notes

by VinodSebastian

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